Baseball Pitching Velocity Training

Listen to the entire 3X Pitching Podcast Episode 1. You can subscribe to the podcast on iTunes by selecting the button on the far right.
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3X Pitching Show Episode 1 Transcript

This transcript is a rough draft. It is recommended that you listen to the podcast above.

Pitching Velocity and the Link to Body Weight

"Hello! This is Brent Pourciau with, and welcome to, let's just say, the first episode or podcast of 3X Pitching. I'm going to kind of call this show 3X Pitching. I thought it'll be silly to call it 3X Pitching Show, so I'm just going to call it 3X Pitching!
So basically what I'm going to do in these podcasts and hopefully I can continue to do them for you, is to just bring you a ton of information, more information outside of the pitching articles that I post on, so this show is free to my subscribers and if you're not a subscriber and you got to this no problem, but if you could be a subscriber that will be great. Put your name and email address anywhere on the site, you'll see it and it has the give away and right now I'm giving away the 30 Days 5 Miles Per Hour 3 videos, awesome videos where I really kind of give away a lot of the programs in there. Of course there's a ton more of the programs, specifically all the training aspects and proprietary drills I developed in it and lifts and exercises and how I put them all together to ultimately help us increase as much pitching velocity, as much as we can right?
So if you haven't signed up for that, sign up for that. That'll be awesome. But if not, this is just a service I want to give you guys and try to get you more helpful information even if your a 3X Pitching user or not. Alright, so today in this first podcast here I'm going to cover a topic out of my most recent or from one of my pitching articles that I wrote called, "Study Proves Body Weight Is Pitching Velocity Factor." Of course, I like to throw in a lot of controversial subjects out there. Ultimately, they're really the better subjects because the reason they have a lot of controversy around them is, there's a lot of misinformation there that coaches, instructors, those professionals that are out there putting their two cents into the knowledge of the game, for improvements to the game.
There's a lot of conflicting information, and of course it comes down to who's right, who's wrong, who's close to being right, and who's not close to being right. Of course that could create a whole other show that we might do one day on how to deal with that, but you know what it comes down to is to do the homework yourself, like I always say, become your best or own pitching coach, your own strength coach and really learn the stuff yourself because just like if you're sick and you're going to the doctor, it's great to get two or three opinions but it's also great to do your own homework and learn it and empower yourself to where you don't feel like you're just kind of dependent on someone else's schooling or knowledge of when they're helping you. You know, when it comes to getting the right answers and right information, when it comes to your career, just do your homework and ultimately that's what I'm trying to do for you with all the pitching articles and 3X pitching, I've just continued what I did with my career which is to collect as much critical revolutionary information to help me become a better pitcher and I've continued that for you. And I enjoy it, and love it and that's why I do it. And if your a 3X Pitching user or you've been to the camps you'll understand how much I enjoy this and that's why I put so much hard work into it and so much information into it. So that being said, let's get started here!
Alright, so, if you don't have the article in front of you it called, "Study Proves Body Weight Is Pitching Velocity Factor", you can search that in Google and it'll pop right up and you can dive in the article. Ultimately, it's not a long read, so I would recommend you read it but we're gonna skim through and it basically comes from this case study that I discovered a couple years ago that came out in 2008 that was actually performed in the Texas Metroplex Institute for Sports Performance, Grand Prairie, TX. It also has some of the doctors involved who are from the New Orleans area, which is where I'm out of, so that was pretty cool. I like to see some local action down here so I don't feel like I'm sitting on my own little island, completely disconnected from baseball, just because we don't have any major league teams down here kind of feels that way. But yeah, it's a great study and I specifically isolated the body weight components of it. The study really is a great study because it goes on and nails down I believe nine key components to pitching velocity and I'm going to put out future articles covering those other components. A lot of them in there, they admit in the study, already proven in other case studies, which you will find in my other pitching articles. But there is still some good things in there that have been pointed out in my other pitching articles but haven't been brought to this kind of detail, which is important. The coolest thing about this research I've done, because I had such a great, you know, in my career I had such great results from my training, from all this information I was learning and ultimately when I got in my training program, which is just like the 3X Pitching Velocity Program, and I was working hard with Kurt Hester, who's in strength and conditioning hall of fame, and I was also working with Gayle Hatch, who's the Olympic lifting coach, you know, I was learning from what Tom House of the NPA was doing when I was out in San Diego and I was pulling all this stuff together and I was really experiencing some amazing results. This, you know, allowed me to play professional baseball and throw 94 mph after doctors told me I would never play again. When all this stuff was happening, and ultimately I wanted to retire because I wanted to coach this stuff because I felt like I discovered something revolutionary, which I really believe I did. At the same time I really wanted to do more research to see if there was anything I was missing out on or if there was something I missed. I found a few things here and there but the coolest thing after 2005/2006 after 6 years was, looking back was that all these case studies that I pulled up, and there's been 20 to 30 of them, they continue to affirm the success of the program that I used ten years ago. So it's good to see that what I was doing was ultimately the right thing and I had no real information on it. It was basically off those trainers who had success and with my trial and error. So it was great to see that this program still stands really strong today and as I continue to improve it, which goes into my level 1, level 2, and level 3's and beyond.
The 3X programs still revolve around the basics of triple extension, the basics of how us pitchers generate high velocities through our stride and high speeds of our strides, through our leg drives and how that leg drive works. Which no one ever taught us or taught me up to this point. I never really heard it and still rarely hear how you actually align the drive leg to use it and to power the hips open to create optimal hip to shoulder separation. And that being the foundation for 3x pitching and that being what I discovered when developing 3X Pitching. It's just awesome to see these studies continue to affirm that it's legit and really works and each year more of these studies come out, it's proving that it really does work. So that's really cool because I'm ultimately open to anything, I'm open to any kind of information that came into my system or challenged my system or 3X Pitching, I would be open to really, really studying it and making a hard decision on if I had to change it. But I don't really see that happening because I have had such great results of course with myself and with a lot of pitcher's that have come through the program, so it'll be hard to see that happening but I'm open to it and that's the point here. And that's why I'm open to those who have other approaches on the site and as you see on the forums we're always arguing and there's a lot of heated debates there, even guys I had to ban because they started threatening my life on email, which was fun! But I'm open to it.
I like debate because it helps me learn and helps everybody else learn. But all that being said, these studies like I said continue to show that 3X Pitching is a legitimate program and it's proven to be effective. It really is. These studies are showing or proving its effectiveness. And like I said, as with this study here, a lot of these other components that they listed are already pretty much the majority, if not all, are in the 3X programs. There's some details in there we could define and analyze, something I'll bring into a more advanced approach. We're going to touch on mainly body weight.

Body Weight and Pitching Velocity

Body weight being one of the key factors here in this case study. Now body weight's controversial because it's where we came from, if we look at our history as pitchers in the game, specifically major league baseball pitchers, that's were it has been more documented. We can see that back 30, 40, 50 years ago pitchers as athletes were a lot smaller. And because baseball has been the kind of slow poke in all of sports, the one being left behind, we've seen it evolve slowly. I guess when you have this new science, you see it really changed sports like basketball and football, we've seen it change baseball but not as quickly. It wasn't a quick jump, it was a gradual increase and it was tainted with steroids just like these others sports.
But I think as we fell into this style we see some of the old pitchers playing the new style of the game and it makes us wonder if those those old school approaches are still valid. Weight being one of them in that old mentality that you want to run long distance, stay skinny, be an endurance pitcher, and you don't get to be heavy and tight because we need to have flexibility. How long have we heard this? This is the same things they were saying in football back in the 50's before even Alvin Roy, who trained Coach Hatch, who I worked around. When he was the first strength and conditioning coach in the San Diego, Chargers, before he went to being first strength and conditioning coach in professional sports. He was working around LSU, and LSU didn't want to open up this new school approach "bigger, stronger, faster." They really believed that even in football strength training would make you heavier, bigger, and tighter and they'd be less mobile and less athletic. Ultimately they found quickly that wasn't true. And athletes at that time, like Billy Cannon from down here, who won the Heisman trophy in the 50's or 60's. He was training with Alvin Roy. So he was doing something that was cutting edge. He was using this heavy explosive Olympic style weight training and he was called a man among boys in college sports and it was because of the strength training that no one was doing that was competing against him that was giving him the edge. And it still exists today and in baseball but we are still caught in this old school mentality because well look there's Tim linceum, these smaller and skinny pitchers that they looked like they've never touched a weight in there life and they're amazing and some of the best in the game. And that's what it comes back to and the way I take on that argument and it's a good point but what it comes down to and in baseball and football we could be more strength athletes pure brute force. We talk about strength that it doesn't matter how big you are. Ultimately the bigger guys could potentially have more strength. That really, really is the advantage in football and in baseball it exists but there's a difference here, another key factor that changes our game. And that is speed.
Speed is important in football but that's kind of when they get around the ends and throw it past the lines and upfront it's a strength game. In baseball, its more of a speed game. We look at throwing speed being a performance factor that is critical for a pitcher for an outfielder and infielder. And we see running speed as a performance factor, and for a hitter bat speed being a key factor. These aspects of speed pretty much define the entire game of baseball. So because we're a more speed focused game, we have to make sure that as athletes, we have the speed components to compete at a higher level at that component. What that does is takes the strength and conditioning aspects or developing the perfect baseball player. It takes and adds a another component to what we've done to football. It's no longer just brute force at this point, now we bring in the speed aspect to develop strength to speed ration. Meaning, if your weight 500 pounds and you can push 500 off your chest or off the ground, that's incredibly impressive but if you weigh that much it isn't. So if you can push 500 pounds and you weigh 250, then you're pushing two times your body weight, that is impressive. Even if we went the other way, say you can push 250 at 500 pounds, that's not as impressive. But say you weigh 90 pounds, now that's impressive. The strength to weight ratio what I like to call power to weight ratio because I like it to be more power focused.
Power is defined more as strength and speed together. So its not just how much brute force but also the speed at which we can generate that force which is power. And that once again defines the speed component. So I believe a high performance athlete in baseball will be measured more effectively in a power to weight ratio of 1.5 or 2.0 times his body weight. It's talked about a lot in and I see it as a critical component that measures the better athlete in baseball. That is the better hitter, the better pitcher. Now that defines Tim Lincecum, a guy 5'9 on his toes and 150 pounds soaking wet. That defines him well. Because that says if Tim was pushing 1.5 times his body weight and say he's 150 pounds, 150 divided by two is 75, plus 150 is 225 pounds. So Tim Lincecum can push or generate power above his body a weight at 225 pounds. He's considered an elite athlete in my book because he's at 1.5 his weight. So just take it as a power clean because that is a power movement. Because it's both how much force we can generate from the ground and how quickly we can throw and catch it. Which is more like a swing and throw when you're moving that way. Now if Tim Lincecum could power clean 225 pounds for a 150 pound frame at 5'9, that's impressive, at 1.5 times your body weight. It doesn't sound impressive to those who don't think power to weight ratio but they're just looking at the 225. I know athletes who can curl 225 pounds. That's when people with those old school mentalities in baseball get lost because they think brute force and at 225 pounds your not a strong guy. If you're Tim Linceum, you're incredibly explosive. Power clean wise, I'm 6'1 and currently 210 pounds and I can power clean 225 for 4 sets of 10 so it's really not impressive to me because I weight 210 pounds. More impressive to Tim Lincecum. So I hope that paints the picture. So that's where the Tim lincecum argument of strength, here's a guy who is not strong, not true.
So how can I justify that Tim lincecum can push out his body weight 1.5 or more? I don't know the numbers but I have evidence that he aces the speed and agility test every time he goes into spring training and I also found that he can do a back flip. How much power can you generate of the floor if you can jump in the air, spin around backwards, and land on your feet. It takes a considerable amount of power. That's another way we record power specifically 3X Velocity Camps where we record power through vertical jumps, vertically and broad jumps. You have to have a 35 maybe close to 40 inch vertical to jump up in the air and do a back flip. Someone in that range in the 30-40 vertical can push way over 1.5 times their body weight. So I truly believe that someone like Tim Lincecum may not seem like he's strong like 225 but for his size, I guarantee that he can push 1.5 or more which makes him an elite athlete. Now how does that come back to body weight. Ultimately, it is the foundation of why body weight is most proven to be effective for the pitcher. So if we look at the study, it said they advised us by saying that a larger athlete generated more force. So they're advising that the reason they believe this, is the same reason why the 54 collegiate baseball pitchers where heavier and threw harder.
They believe that those are larger athletes and therefore can generate more force. Ultimately, they are most collegiate athletes. There's a good chance they strength trained. So more than likely the guys who were bigger and heavier are because they are the stronger athlete who can generate more force. So when I came across this study it made a lot of sense to me but I put it up there because the conventional coach thinks that weight and body mass and strength, they think it has no place to pitching velocity and no effect on pitching velocity and this study proves otherwise. So I really wanted to make an impact to make these coaches think and to reevaluate how they look at their athletes or their pitchers. So if you ultimately, are looking for or into more evidence that body weight is true, that this generates a more stronger and explosive athlete, then we should see in major league baseball body weight going up because these guy are trying to make money and they want to get good and an edge and once someone got a hold of this information or by trial an error realized every time that when gained weight I pitched harder and hit harder. So I believe we would of seen this evidence, of course we do, before the study we look at the numbers.
Here's a chart I posted on the article by showed that in major league baseball from 1960 to 2010 that the body mass has gone up by 3 points and the average weight and the average weight has gone to 186 pounds to 208.9 pounds That is unbelievable, that's over 20 pounds. So a considerable jump in the past 50 years in body weight.
Also, I posted a chart from that shows the hardest throwers, the top twenty hard throwers ever, now this a tough chart because not until the 70's, 80's and 90's did the radar gun become more commonly used. Probably more in the 90's. So we don't have any except Bob Feller, the army had to record his velocity and it was a different device or method that they used but that was in 1946 but during the times we really weren't really recording velocities. So as you see in the chart, you see a ton of 2000 numbers up there of course that was when we were recording velocities more. I honestly believe that in the past, we didn't have an actual recordings of velocities from the pre 80's and anything before the 80's. So the last is 220, 30 something years we have these velocity recordings and we can see the top 20 pitchers from those years. The majority sit in the 2000's and up. 14 out of the 20 sit in the year 2000 or up. So that really shows that velocity has obviously changed because you can see the 90's, I played in the 90's, they were recording velocities all the time. There really was from the 90's to the 2000's a considerable jump, not guys throwing harder but on average guys throwing harder than just one guy throwing harder.
That shows you in the evolution of the game something was going on. I believe two things, yes strength and conditioning was a major one. That links to the weight gain.
Two, Mechanics. We've learned a lot more mechanically what supports high velocities and what we continue to discover here at Topvelocity but this is evidence that strength and conditioning has made a factor and that's the link to the weight gain. Now I also took the average weight from that chart and it was 216 pounds.
It wasn't that accurate and a bit lower. Nolan Ryan I know was more than 195 in his playing years. I had to adjust Chapman from 185 to 200. On average 216 pounds was the average weight of the top 20 fastest throwers in history. 216 pounds is a large man. On average it's a large man. I'm close to that and I'm a large man. Most guys who come into my camp are less than 216. Those who come in at 216 have all the potential in the world to increase pitching velocity. They are just out of shape , they were born with it, and come in and weren't athletic. They didn't understand the movements, so I had to teach them. It is safe to say and accurate and effective in your career for you to add weight. Now just focusing on adding weight wouldn't be advisable. The harder your strategies its really the bigger, stronger, faster approach. I've always been the bigger, stronger, faster approach. It's how I changed my own game.
Problem was when I went to the conventional coach, told I used the bigger, stronger, faster approach, bigger would throw them off. The bigger, stronger and faster approach, to try to sneak it past them. Stronger, faster I'm with you. Bigger I'm not with you. That's going to be tough. My coach isn't going to like that. If I'm a coach my assistant my head coach. Bigger has always been the harder pill to swallow. That's why linking this and showing this information mainstream will try to take those fears. I really think it's fear. I can't lift and get too big. I'm going to get tight and a mess. It's really just not healthy for the athlete. It's not true. Evidence shows otherwise. If you just look at the top twenty throwers ever in history there's very few under 200 pounds and I would even debate the ones under 200 pounds if they're actually 200 pounds. Lets move past this. Lets ultimately address that what they've been doing strength and conditioning wise in every single sport across the board. It varies and they do it different but across the board they're similar approaches the bigger, stronger and faster it works in baseball as well. That's a no brainer. A lot of people listen to this and say yeah OK say lets move on. Now that we addressed that, how do we increase body weight. So I put together a list of 30 tips here to increase body weight. These are all thing I promote in 3x pitchers or included in the workouts.
The workouts in 3x Pitching Velocity Program are upfront and level one is more of a beginner program but it really is a advanced beginner program. Its something I would advise to do at a beginner level. If you really are a beginner and in level one we really focus on the stronger and faster aspects of building the athlete. No as much of hypertrophy. Level two is more hypertrophy, level two 3X Pitching because you use more high frequency training which means we increase the volume and amount of time in the weight room. Which means more hypertrophy which means size and growth. So on level two we do more hypertrophy. When I go to level three which will be available soon and being beta tested. We're using with our guys and I'm making adjustments on it. It's going to be back more to speed and strength, really focusing hard on our key issues that we have when being close to being a high velocity pitcher. Requirements are you have a 1.3 strength ration. Mid upper eighties and trying to break 90 and focusing on key factors like force vectors and converting that triple extension to hip shoulder separation, rotation and getting good at that. So that's what we address. In level two I open to the bigger approach in body mass. Which might not be for anymore and who's 220 and doesn't want it. I would recommend to stay at level 1 or if your that young kid that can't gain weight and I want to get to 200, level two would be great and awesome for you. Here's some tips and like I said they'll be in the 3X Program.
The first one is to Double or Triple Your Caloric Intake. We can't add muscle if we don't eat more. Its the only way we can build and withstand a bigger body mass. So caloric intake is critical and most of you guys who are small guys who might think you eat a lot, ultimately you don't. You eat a lot of crap. And that goes to the next one, Eat Nutrient Rich Foods. You eat a lot but you eat a lot of crap, you need things that are nutrient rich such as nuts, lean beefs, dark green raw vegetables, things that are loaded with good nutrients, good fat, good proteins, and good micro nutrients. That's critical, get away from these paper thin nutrient depleted foods. Stop putting that in your body because it's filling you up and not replenishing your system. Look at that. When your trying to eat more, your just thinking of quality when there's as much as a quantity that is critical to you gaining mass. So when we say eat a lot and double triple it has to be nutrient dense, if your not its not.
Add a Protein Supplement 1-2x Per Day for the reason when we increase our protein we increase our cellular growth and ultimately our body is going to burn it or it's going to build with it. The thing is it's okay to be burned, if it's not there it'll burn the protein in the muscles. We need to put in our system through our diets and take it from our muscles mass because then that works against it.
Use Bigger Plates and Silverware To Help You Consume More. That's just more of a strategy to stop eating on small plates. If you eat like a pig , that just helps you understand mentally how you can prepare yourself. Notice everything is to increase your caloric intake. We can't build mass without putting it in our bodies.
Eat Raw Foods, Probiotics and Fiber to Help Digestion. I have a diet plan I put my pitchers on I have a online source I put my guys on. It's a monthly system and it makes sure you put key ingredients that makes sure you recovery to speed it up. One of the key things they're not used to put them in is raw foods and probatics are enzymes that break down your foods. If we're stuffing all this stuff in there we're going to back up. We have to break and digest and simulate and we need fiber to push it out to do it again. That's important if we're going to consume faster.
Increase Your Frequency of Lifting. We can use high frequency training. That's what we do in level two. Basically before we train in level one two more days into one weeks so we really amp up the frequency of training.
Try Adding More Reps With Higher Weight. That's ultimately what you do when you want to create some hypertrophy, you still want to do high intensity and you fatigue. You don't want to hit the fatigue reps at 40 reps I'll rather hit failure at 10 reps. Then it hits strength also. Strength comes from activating more motor units and more of your load from the muscles. And more opportunities to move the weight, therefore activating the motor units.
Try Lifting Twice a Day. Morning and night. That's adding a higher frequency.
Perform Mostly Leg Lifts. Legs are the biggest muscle group and gains muscle the easiest. Important we are pounding the legs and obvious in the 3x Programs.
No Long Distance Running or Low Intensity Training. Your not activating motor units and less fatigue quickly. Low Intensity, takes longer to fatigue. You're burning more calories by eating lean meat. Get rid of the long distance running and shorten the intervals and increase the loads.
Use Different Exercises Throughout the Week. Don't do the same thing over and over. If you look a the 3X Program we change it up. Don't do the same thing over and over, your body get used to it. It's more efficient and you fatigue less. So it's harder to activate more motor units.
If You Are Old Enough Drink an Aperitif to Stimulate Appetite, this is actually an alcoholic drink that you have to talk with your parents about. Your not drinking around 3 to 4 ounces of a aperitif something like a brandy it actually works. Look up online for some aperitifs and you drink it 2 to 3 ounces. Alcohol stimulate's your appetite and you can eat more.
Read Food Magazines. That ones kind of funny but it's true. If you sit down and look at a magazine with awesome dishes of food it makes you hungry and you eat more.
Hang Out With Big Eaters. Eat around guys who eat a lot and aren't squirrels and picky. Get around guys who chow down and brag about it.
Hang out with Lifters. I'm not saying to hangout with bodybuilders. Guys who want to lift and get bigger and they love it when they get a pump and fired up. If you want to be successful hang around successful people.
Eat a Ton Post Workout. When we burn up all our sugars and our insulin levels are high, that means our body is ready to pull nutrients to feed the muscles. Post workout is critical, within 30 minutes, to feed your muscles. If its not there it'll break down your muscle and work against you.
Eat Less Pre Workout. You don't want to eat at times before a workout because your going to eat less after a workout. Take in a protein and take in some sugar, but not too much. You don't want to overeat preworkout, just a good balanced meal in a hour or hour and a half before and burn it all off. In the end you want to be burned off and be starving. Eat the big meal.
Challenge Yourself in Weight Room (Don’t be Stupid Though) Just pushing yourself and working to fatigue. But don't be stupid and don't be sacrificing technique and doing something stupid. Don't be adding an extra rep if your technique is wrong. Be smart and don't push yourself past the limit. We hurt ourselves it's because we put ourselves in harms way by sacrificing technique by sacrificing a spotter and not being smart.
Activate More Motor Units When Lifting to Fatigue. Focus mainly on the big muscle groups hitting groups like legs and core.
Sleep 10-12 Hours. Yes our body needs time to get our brain waves to drop so or growth hormone and testosterone is released. If we recover less we break down more. The body starts going to Sleep in a Dark, Quit, Cool Room. That's just a good sleep. Dark room quiet and cool. That way we can get a better chance of a deep sleep.
Go To High Quality All You Can Eat Buffet. Don't just eat quantity, go quality like a casino buffet, somewhere your not restricted to one entree, your parents or coaches, whoever is going to pay's not going to like to hear this.
Snack on Raw Foods. In between meals, if you're going to snack, snacking on raw foods instead of processed is going to help you assimilate what food's in your gut and will get you hungrier. If your throwing in processed food, boxed food, cheese or anything processed it's going to take longer to break down and slow down your meals. This is critical. Snacking on raw foods.
Visualize Yourself Getting Bigger. This is key. Visualization is critical component in enhancing performance. Visualize yourself getting bigger and see yourself at 215 pounds or 250 pounds.
Set a Goal to Gain So Much Weight in So Much Time. In six months I'm going to gain twenty pounds and weigh yourself to see your on the number. I have to gain so much a month and make sure your hitting it.
Go Buy Bigger Clothes. Big pants, big shoes, bigger things we can wear to hypertrophy in and when we pick up some growth that will motivate us and make us feel bigger. Play along with those things that help us gain.
Eat Fast. Parents hate that and it's not good for your digestion. This is why you need raw foods. This is really not good. This a ton of raw foods and probotics we should still be able to simulate our food. Eating faster pushes us quickly and doesn't allow our hungry sensors to go off to tell us we're full. Get food in before it tells your body your full. Your stomach going to burst its because your are full. Don't overeat though. Be careful.
Train Fast (Less Breaks). In the weight room don't lift and then talk for 5 minutes. Thirty seconds to a minute break maybe a minute and a half. Let that ATP rebuild and go back at it.
Eat Food High in Cholesterol at Night. Studies have shown cholesterol at night is critical at night for testosterone. If you have cholesterol, your body will produce more testosterone. Like an egg at night don't over cook and eat it as raw as you can. Good little cholesterol to stimulate more testosterone.That's pretty much it. That should you give you things to work with. It's all in the 3X Program when it comes down to gaining body mass. I hope I gave you lot in the first podcast of 3X Pitching. If you would like me to cover any subjects I haven't covered, I would love for you guys to comment or post on the forums like a subject covers. Like I said I'm going to try to keep this up and I hope this helps and appreciate you guys, let's work hard and keep increasing pitching velocity.